Motivations for Self-Regulation: the Clean Air Action Plan
All authors:
Genevieve Giuliano, Alison Linder
Host organisation:
CoE Southern California U, USA
Country: United States of America
Publication year: 2013
Published in:
Giuliano, G. and A. Linder (2013) “Motivations for Self-Regulation: the Clean Air Action Plan, Energy Policy, 59, August 2013, 513-522.
Research theme: Change Processes and Institutional Innovation, Environment and Climate Change, Urban Freight
Self-regulation, Clean Air
Research article
In the fall of 2006 the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles announced the Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP). Its intent was to greatly accelerate emissions reductions from port activities. The CAAP was unprecedented in several ways: it was a voluntary agreement between two competing ports; it was achieved with the cooperation of local, state and federal agencies; it promised large particulate emissions reductions along with continued port growth, and it had a price tag of $2.1 billion. What explains the Ports´ decision to implement the CAAP? We conduct a case study to explore alternative explanations for the CAAP. Using data from interviews, media, and the history of events leading up to the CAAP, we find that the CAAP was a strategic response to social and political pressures that had built up over the previous decade. Its intent was to respond to local concerns and reduce opposition to port growth. The CAAP represents an example of the potential of voluntary efforts to solve environmental problems..
October 2020
Upcoming Events
Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su
v40        1 2 3 4
v41  5 6 7 8 9 10 11
v42  12 13 14 15 16 17 18
v43  19 20 21 22 23 24 25
v44  26 27 28 29 30 31  


The VREF invites Sub-Saharan based researchers with expertise on sustainable and equitable
mobility and access or related areas, and strong interest in carrying out interdisciplinary research. Open for application until 2020-09-29


The VREF invites PhD students and advanced master students from Sub-Saharan African (SSA) universities to apply for a Mobility Grant (MG) to support a visit to another SSA university with up to SEK 25 000.


The VREF invites PhD students and researchers in early stages of their career to apply for a Study Visit Grant to be supported with up to SEK 30 000.

Each year the Håkan Frisinger Foundation for Transportation Research awards a scholarship to a prominent researcher.


Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarships for Sustainable Transport and Energy Efficiency targets supporting the momentum of Lee Schipper’s contribution to the international policy dialogue in these fields.

This yearly award is aimed at supporting young individual researchers and students in is pursuance.

Call extended to April 30, 2020 due to COVID19.


Blog! Blog! Blog!

Global Mobility Research

This Meeting of the Minds' blog monthly releases interviews of global transportation researchers from the VREF's Future Urban Transport Program Network.


This CityFix series, produced by the WRI (World Ressources Institute) Ross Center for Sustainable Cities and supported by the VREF, discusses walking and cycling in cities with a special focus on low- and middle-income countries.

About VREF

The Volvo Research and Educational Foundations (VREF) inspires, initiates and supports research and educational activities through the Future Urban Transport Programme - How to deal with the complexity of urban transport (FUT). 

Our Vision: Sustainable transport for equitable access in urban areas

Read more

© Copyright VREF